en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ancient_Egypt

mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/15ade20dbe574eb1

www.ancientegypt.co.uk/time/explore/main.html

www.timemaps.com/history/ancient-egypt-2500bc

historylists.org/people/list-of-10-famous-ancient-egyptian-pharaohs.html

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narmer_Palette

historylists.org/other/list-of-15-most-worshiped-ancient-egyptian-gods-and-goddesses.html

historylists.org/art/10-most-distinguished-works-of-ancient-egyptian-art.html

penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/miscellanea/cleopatra/basalt.html

www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/egypt-art/new-kingdom/a/tutankhamuns-tomb

www.google.com/search?q=Throne+of+Tutankhamun&rlz=1C1ASUM_enUS678US678&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiAyuqiy97SAhWmsFQKHSteCzYQ_AUICCgB&biw=1440&bih=770#tbm=isch&q=Throne+of+Tutankhamun+illustration&*&imgrc=7ZCXtYA_udJCyM:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bent_Pyramid

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khafra

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_the_Dead

www.livescience.com/39349-akhenaten.html

www.livescience.com/25184-karnak-temple.html

www.livescience.com/37740-luxor.html

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akhenaten

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aten

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www.grisel.net/tut.htm

1
Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt
2
Early Egyptian Life
8,000 BC
1st human life in the area
Quest for food brought the stone age man to the
Nile River Valley
Hunters roamed until the found the river valley
Climatic changes caused northern Africa to become
drier
7,000 BC
Probable start of agriculture in the Nile region
Barley, wheat and vegetables grown
3,000 BC
Many small villages established along the Nile
Area called Kemet
Fertile, black soil

3
General Information
Unification
Originally two kingdoms developed along the Nile
Lower Egypt
Located along the northern Nile
Good farmland
Access to copper mines in Sinai Peninsula
Upper Egypt
Located along the southern Nile
Ruler names Menes
Established first dynasty
Conquered lower Egypt, unifying the kingdom
Built capital at Memphis
Established by Narmar

4
General Information
Approximately 30 dynasties (ruling families) from
2700 BC to 1090 BC
Dynasties ruled Egypt for a total of 2700
years
Ancient Egyptian history divided into three
periods
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
Years between kingdoms without ruling dynasty
usually marked by civil wars and/or invasion

5
Geography of the Nile Region
River
Flows north
Originates in the highlands of Central Africa
Ends in the Mediterranean Sea
Longest river in the world at 4,160 miles
Floods
Until recently, flooded annually in July
Floods predictable
Added moisture to the soil
Deposited silt, replenishing the soil with
nutrients
Caused delta to form at the mouth of the river

6
Influence of Geography on Civilization
Natural barriers provide obstacles to potential
invaders
Mediterranean Sea to the North
Libyan Desert to the West
Nubian Desert to the Southeast
Red Sea to the East
6 Cataracts in southern part of Nile
Susceptible to invasion
Across Sinai Peninsula
Across Northern Sinai Desert
Also enabled Egypt to invade others

7
Effect of Barriers
Limited invasions from many angles
Limited farming to a narrow region on either side
of the river
Caused river villages to be crowded
As population grew, villages needed to expand
Forced Egyptians to develop irrigation systems to
create more fertile land
Drained marshy swamps of the delta region in
order to farm the land

8
Benefits
The river served as a highway
United villages along the river
Travel was relatively easy on the river
Currents carried barges downstream to the delta
Sails used to catch winds to return upstream
Additional benefits
River attracted wildlife and provided fish for
hunting sport
Papyrus grew along river
Used to make paper

9
Religion in Ancient Egypt
Beliefs
Nature important
Polytheistic
Gods control forces of nature
Gods controlled all life and death
Gods frequently identified with certain animals
Egyptian Gods
Aman Re
Most important god
Sun god
East represented birth (sunrise)
West represented death (sunset)
Burial temples built on the West bank of the
Nile

10
Religion
Osiris
God of the underworld
Judges the dead
Rise fall of the Nile believed to be the death
rebirth of Osiris
Set
God of evil who killed Osiris
Believed to cause failed harvest
Isis
Wife of Osiris
Brought him back to life
Nile floods and brings renewed life

11
Religion
The Afterlife
Egyptians believed in a life after death
Believed the good lived in happiness
Believed the dead needed to take with them things
they would need in death
Believed the earthly body would be
needed as a home for the soul
Preserved the bodies of the dead through
mummification
Originally reserved for rulers and nobels

12
System of Writing
Record keeping of religious rituals prompted
writing
3,100 BC
pictograms- picture of object
Ideograms added to convey ideas
Added symbols for sounds
No symbols for vowel sounds
Symbols evolved into hieroglyphics
Writings carved in wood or stone
Later, symbols painted in ink on papyrus

13
The Rosetta Stone
Slab of black rock carved in three languages
Hieroglyphics
Demotic (shorthand hieroglyphics)
Greek
Found in 1799
1822- French scholar Jean Chapollion cracked the
code of hieroglyphics because he could read
Greek
Enabled scholars to decipher papyrus scrolls of
hieroglyphics

14
What Characterized Civilization in Ancient Egypt?
Civilizations developed when people could stay
put and not have to wander after their food
supply.
When people began to grow food, they became more
organized
Divisions in labor developed to decide who did
what
Farmers, herders, artisans, government
Cities grew with this organization
Civilization cities often thought to go hand in
hand

15
The Old Kingdom
2700-2200 BC
Strong monarchs
Tasks delegated to many govt officials

16
The Middle Kingdom
2050-1800 BC
New capital Thebes in upper (southern) Egypt
Human/Enviroment Interaction
1600 BC ruler becomes known as the pharoah
Early female ruler Hatshepsut
Has a tomb built as part of a major building
project
Suceeded by stepson, Thutmose III
Thutmose established Egypt as an empire, gains
wealth
Through trade and conquest, Egyptians learn other
ideas and blend cultures (movement)

17
New Kingdom
1570- 1090 BC
1370 BC Amenhotep rises to power
makes many unsettling changes
Makes Egyptians monotheistic
Aton the sun god
Claims to be equal to Aton
Weak ruler, lost part of empire
Priests soliders unhappy w/ changes
Egypt returned to old ways after his death
1200s BC rule of Ramses II
Long rule
Many children (52 sons, plus daughters)
Had temples and tombs built

Mummy of Ramses II
18
Corrupt government suffered frequent rebellions
Pharaohs organized centralized state
Pharaohs created a large empire
Built enormous tombs, the pyramids
Land drained for farming
Traded with lands along eastern Mediterranean and
Red Sea
Power struggles, crop failures and cost of
pyramids caused collapse
Hittites invaded and conquered
Nubians, then others invaded
19
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20
Egyptian Society
Social Class
A persons social position and occupation
determined at birth
Parents taught their children their own trade
Social Structure
Top Pharaoh
Ruling class of priests nobles
Middle class of merchants, artisans, doctors
Bottom Slaves

21
Egyptian Society
Ruling Class
Egyptian life revolved around religion
Priests had highest status after pharaoh
Only priests knew how to please gods
Gods controlled nature
Priests preformed rituals to obtain fertile land
etc
People paid tax to the temples
Grain, gold, linen, etc
Under priests were nobles who mainly held govt
positions

22
Egyptian Society
Middle Class
Small group
Settled in cities
Cities (Memphis, Thebes) grew around temples
palaces
Provided goods services to the ruling class

23
Egyptian Society
Peasants Slaves
Majority of Egyptians
Lifestyle unchanged for thousands of years
Pharaoh owned all the land
Over half of the crops had to be paid as taxes
Usually had to work on palace or govt project
Brought to Egypt as POWs or were descendents of
POWs
Some slaves lived comfortable lives
Some became trusted officials (Joseph)
Some earned their freedom
Life was tough for most

24
Egyptian Society
Status of Women
Relatively high status for that time in history
Could buy and sell property
Could seek divorce (although rare)
Property inherited through female line
Role of wife mother important
A womans status increased
when she had children
Sometimes women considered property,
but were treated kindly
Queen might rule with pharaoh
If pharaoh had more than one wife, the first wife
was most important
Her son would be the next pharaoh

25
Education
Original purpose of schools was to train priests
Subjects taught
Reading writing
Math
Religious ceremonies rituals
Eventually temple schools provided more general
education
Usually schools attended only by the wealthy
Girls did not attend school
Taught domestic skills at home
Students took notes on scraps of pottery
Papyrus was expensive only used by advanced
students
Strict discipline

26
Scribes
Scribes were very important
Kept records, recorded history
Could possibly become rich
About the only social mobility of the era

27
Scientific Accomplishments
In areas of math and science
Developed system of surveying land
Important due to annual floods
Surveying land led to Geometry
Area volume
Development of astronomy
To predict floods, eclipses
Led to development of calendar
365 days, 12 months
3 seasons, 30 days for 11 months, 35 for the
12th
No leap year
Development of building techniques
engineering

28
Scientific Accomplishments
Medical discoveries
Magic heavily used
Developed surgery
Greeks Romans based much of their medical
knowledge on that of the Egyptians

29
Other Ancient African Civilzations
3000 BC Nubia
Located southern part of Nile Valley
Military skills
May have had close links to Egypt
2000 BC Nubia developed into Kingdom of Kush
Had pyramids too
750 BC invaded Egypt added to Nubia, ruled like
pharaohs respecting Egyptian traditions
671 BC pushed back out of Egypt by invading
Assyrians
480 BC conquered by Axuin from the Red Sea Area